Malaria, one of the worlds most deadliest and well
known diseases.The word malaria means bad air
in Italian. The disease was so named because it
was thought to be a result of rising swamp gases
that got into the air which caused the disease in
humans. But in 1880,Charles Laveran discovered a
protozoal parasite in the blood of an ill patient.
There after,in 1898 Ronald Ross found that the bite
of the female Anopheles mosquito transmits the
parasites into the bloodstream. Once in the

bloodstream
the parasites make their way to the
cells of the liver where they reproduce asexually.
After which,these cells burst and release the
parasite back into the bloodstream where they
reproduce asexually and feed on the hemoglobin
in the cells. The red blood cells burst and release
both asexual and sexual forms of the parasite.
It is estimated by experts that nearly 300 million
people world wide contract the disease each year
with an estimated 2 million deaths.
But there are various groups of humans that have
build up a genetic defence against malaria. Some
African and Mediterranean people have altered
hemoglobin genes for which the parasite cannot
thrive as easily as it can in other hosts with normal
hemoglobin. Unfortunately people that inherit
altered genes are more apt to contract sickle-cell
disease. Though many advancements have been
made in preventing malaria in Africa,the fight is
far from over.
Prior to the 1630s there were very few known
ways to cure or prevent malaria,until Spanish
missionaries uncovered an extract from the bark of
the cinchona tree which is native to South
America. The extract,alkaloid quinine,or
quindine,were the only malarial fighting drugs
available during the first 50 years of the 20th
century. Current treatments would be chloroquine
as first choice,or a combination of pyrimethamine
and chloroguanide. The malaria parasite has
discovered a resistance against choroquine, but
when used with another drug called desipramine,
the resistance factor is being well challenged.
There is another promising drug that is being
researched for the treatment of malaria,( arteeher,)
from the chemical ginghaosu,which was derived
from a herb called Artemisia.This herb was
discovered by a Chinese chemist and has been
used for hundreds of years by the Chinese to treat
malaria and fever.

When it comes to preventing malaria,the best way
is to control the cause and spread of the disease;
the mosquito; which is also linked to the spread of
yellow fever. So first; prevent the breeding of
mosquitoes by draining off standing water or by
removing discorded containers that can trap rain
water; cut out grass and underbrush; kill the larvae
with oil, nicotin and other chemicals. In order to
control the spread of malaria, people that are
infected with the disease should be placed in a
screened in environment to prevent mosquitoes
from spreading the disease from the sick to the
healthy.In other words,prevent mosquitoes from
infecting people, prevent people from infecting  
mosquitoes.
History Of  Malaria